Master Degree


Year of erogation: 
Unit Coordinator: 
Disciplinary Sector: 
First semester
Language of instruction: 

Italian or English (depending on presence of foreign students)

Learning outcomes of the course unit

1) Acquiring a good knowledge of growth technologies for polycristals, single crystals, epitaxial films and nano-structures.
2) Ability of choosing the technology to be applied to different material categories
3) Critical assessment of materials characteristics as a function of preparation parameters
4) Ability in planning experiments in order to minimize occurrence of defects and improve the performance of the material of interest.


Basic knowledge of solid state physics, chemistry and thermodynamic.

Course contents summary

Novel materials for advanced technology; Fundamentals of crystal growth; Growth methods for single crystals, thin layers and nanostructures; relationships between growth parameters and material properties.

Course contents

Introduction; Novel materials for key enabling technologies; examples.

Natural crystals and syntetic crystals; crystals' requirements for technological applications (purity, crystallographic perfection, doping).

Relationships between chemical composition, structure and physical properties. Tailoring of properties via impurity incorporation.

Dimension of crystalline materials as degree of freedom in view of unusual physical characteristics (nanostructures.

Fundamentals of Crystal growth; definition of phase transitions; Nucleation; Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects.

Flowdynamic in Crystal grwoth from the melt; concept of boundary layer; segregation phenomena; distribution of impurities within crystals and layers.

Growth techniques for bulk crystals (from the melt, solution, vapour).

Thin films growth; (molecular beam epitaxy, liquid phase epitaxy, vapour phase epitaxy, sputtering, laser ablation.

Mismatch between films and substrates; strained heterostructures and relaxation.

Formation of extended and point defects; classification of defects and strategies for lowering the defect density; "useful" defects.

Typical growth technology for technologically-important crystals (organic and inorganic semiconductors, laser crystals, functional oxides, etc).

Preparation and applications of Nanostructures.

Metamaterials and their applications.

Recommended readings

Lecture notes provided by the teacher; D.T.J. Hurle (Ed.), Handbook of crystal growth (6 volumi), Elsevier 1993; R. Fornari e C. Paorici Eds, Theoretical and technological aspects of crystal growth, Trans Tech Publ 1998; I.V. Markov, Crystal growth for beginners, World Scientific 2003;E.A. Irene, Electronic materials science, Wiley 2005; M. Noginov and V. Podolskiy Eds, Tutorials in Metamaterials, CRC Press 2012

Teaching methods

Lectures supported by audio-visual materials.
In principle the lectures take place in classroom. Possibility of remote streaming for non-resident students who cannot participate in the classroom lectures.

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral examination including:

- Short seminar (max 15 min) on a topic chosen among those presented in the course

- Questions on the different topics in order to check the general confidence of the student with the concepts treated during the course

Final mark will be based for 1/3 on the seminar and 2/3 on the oral examination.

Should the Covid-19 pandemic impede the oral examination in presence, the exams will take place in remote, however method and evaluation of students will not change

Other informations

Additional activities:

Visit of IMEM-CNR labs and growth experiments for bulk crystals and thin films;
(the planned activities are subjected to evolution of Covid-19 pandemic)
Discussions on innovative materials for advanced technologies.